Herman's New Ticks Glossary..

This is a collection of terms collected by staffer and wordsmith, Herman as he meanders his way through unravelling the philosophical understandings which form the backdrop to a PhD lifer. Most of the terms are real..



Determinism

The view that every event, including human cognition, behaviour, decision, and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. Humans may not change the course of the future and its events (fatalism). Incompatibilists view determinism and free will as mutually exclusive. The belief that free will is an illusion is known as Hard Determinism.

Dualism

Any of a narrow variety of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which claims that mind and matter are two ontologically separate categories. In particular, mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be reduced to each other in any way (as opposed to materialism).

Emergence

The way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions..

Free Will

Human choices and actions are determined by internal causes: that an individual is the prime mover of his life.

Materialism

The only thing that exists is matter. All things are composed of material and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions.

Mechanism

The theory that all natural phenomena can be explained by laws of nature. (as opposed to vitalism, which holds that organisms have "vital forces" which aren't physical).

Phenomenology

The phenomenological movement began with Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen (1900-1901). This work is most famous for its attack on psychologism, which is the attempt to absorb logic into empirical psychology. Existential phenomenology developed from Martin Heidegger's Sein und Zeit (1927) which included an analysis of human being as a means to a fundamental ontology that went beyond the regional ontologies described by Husserl. It is concerned with topics such as action, conflict, desire, finitude, oppression, and death. Hermeneutical phenomenology particularly developed from Heidegger's Sein und Zeit, according to which human existence is interpretative. An emphasis of hermeneutics is the method of interpretation

Postmodernism

Suggests there are multiple realities existing alongside each other; individual versions of reality might differ greatly..

Reductionism

Holds that a system is nothing but the sum of its parts and that an account of it can be reduced to accounts of individual constituents. Reductionism dates back to ancient Greek philosophy in which some philosophers including Democritus, viewed the world as a mechanistic, material machine.





List collated by H.
Sources: various







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